By Thaddeus J. Kowalski
Ebook by means of Kowalski, Thaddeus J.
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Extra resources for An Artificial Intelligence Approach to VLSI Design
A) Merge and (b) split non-linear conditional pipeline buffers. input channel to both output channels. A join is a buffer with multiple input channels. Buffers with multiple inputs and outputs are both forks and joins. Buffers are unconditional if they wait for input tokens on all input channels and generate tokens on all output channels. They are conditional if the input channels that are read or output channels that are written depend on the value of a subset of the tokens read. 18(a), which, on the basis of the value of a select token on channel S, waits for an input token on one of the other two input channels and then routes it to the output channel.
Such modules use additional address channels to identify which location to read to or write from the data. 21(a). Note that it is also possible to combine read and write channels into a common bi-directional channel if access to the channel can be guaranteed to be mutually exclusive. 21(b). In both cases, the only active channel is associated with the read port, which generates the resulting memory token. Another form of memory in an asynchronous system is a finite-state machine (FSM). An FSM is a state-holding circuit, which only changes state when the expected inputs for that state become available.
Non-pipelined four-way tree arbiter. 26. Two-way arbiters used in (a) pipelined designs and (b) pipelined multi-way tree arbiters. generated only after a winner is decided, however, the four-way arbiter may not always choose the first-arriving request. In particular, if two requests arrive at one arbiter and one request arrives slightly later at the other arbiter, this later request may win because it can generate a request on T while the first arbiter decides between the two other requests. This tree arbiter is non-pipelined or slackless, because it can operate only on one arbitration event at a time.
An Artificial Intelligence Approach to VLSI Design by Thaddeus J. Kowalski